Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2023
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  



Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation


The Company’s consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of its wholly owned subsidiary, C-Bond Systems, LLC, and its 80% owned subsidiary, Patriot Glass. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.


Going Concern


These consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. As reflected in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company had net income of $1,886,807 for the year ended December 31, 2023, which included a gain from the sale of the Company’s nanoShield product line of $4,051,709. Net cash used in operations was $1,602,218 for the year ended December 31, 2023. Additionally, as of December 31, 2023, the Company had an accumulated deficit, shareholders’ deficit, and working capital deficit of $60,851,714, $4,324,535 and $1,351,954, respectively. On May 8, 2023, the Company sold its nanoShield product line and received proceeds of $4,042,631. The proceeds were used to repay convertible notes payable, notes payable and related accrued interest. On December 31, 2023, the Company had cash of $736,461. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for a period of twelve months from the issuance date of this report. Management cannot provide assurance that the Company will ultimately achieve profitable operations or become cash flow positive or raise additional debt and/or equity capital. The Company is seeking to raise capital through additional debt and/or equity financings to fund its operations in the future. Although the Company has historically raised capital from sales of common shares and preferred shares, and from the issuance of promissory notes and convertible promissory notes, there is no assurance that it will be able to continue to do so. If the Company is unable to raise additional capital or secure additional lending in the near future, management expects that the Company will need to curtail its operations. These consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments related to the recoverability and classification of assets or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern.

Use of Estimates


The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 include estimates for allowance for doubtful accounts on accounts receivable, the estimates for obsolete or slow moving inventory, estimates used in the calculation of progress towards completion on uncompleted jobs, the useful life of property and equipment, assumptions used in assessing impairment of long-term assets, the estimate of the fair value lease liability and related right of use asset, the valuation of redeemable and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock, the value of beneficial conversion features and deemed dividends, the valuation allowances for deferred tax assets, and the fair value of non-cash equity transactions. 


Fair Value of Financial Instruments and Fair Value Measurements


The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets for cash, accounts receivable, contract assets and liabilities, notes payable, convertible note payable, accounts payable, accrued expenses, accrued compensation, and lease liabilities approximate their fair market value based on the short-term maturity of these instruments.


The Company analyzes all financial instruments with features of both liabilities and equity under the Financial Accounting Standard Board’s (the “FASB”) accounting standard for such instruments. Under this standard, financial assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company did not identify any assets or liabilities that are required to be presented on the balance sheet at fair value in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820.


ASC 825-10 “Financial Instruments”, allows entities to voluntarily choose to measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value (fair value option). The fair value option may be elected on an instrument-by-instrument basis and is irrevocable, unless a new election date occurs. If the fair value option is elected for an instrument, unrealized gains and losses for that instrument should be reported in earnings at each subsequent reporting date. The Company did not elect to apply the fair value option to any outstanding instruments.


Cash and Cash Equivalents


For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers all highly liquid instruments with a maturity of three months or less at the purchase date and money market accounts to be cash equivalents. The Company had no cash equivalents as of December 31, 2023 and 2022.


Accounts Receivable


The Company recognizes an allowance for losses on accounts receivable and notes receivable in an amount equal to the estimated probable losses net of recoveries under the current expected credit loss method. The allowance is based on an analysis of historical bad debt experience, current receivables aging and expected future write-offs, as well as an assessment of specific identifiable customer accounts and notes receivable considered at risk or uncollectible. On January 1, 2023, the Company adopted ASC 326, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses”. In accordance with ASC 326, an allowance is maintained for estimated forward-looking losses resulting from the possible inability of customers to make required payments (current expected losses). The amount of the allowance is determined principally on the basis of past collection experience and known financial factors regarding specific customers. The expense associated with the allowance for doubtful accounts on accounts receivable is recognized in general and administrative expenses.




Inventory, consisting of raw materials and finished goods, are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value utilizing the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. A reserve is established when management determines that certain inventories may not be saleable. If inventory costs exceed expected net realizable value due to obsolescence or quantities in excess of expected demand, the Company will record reserves for the difference between the cost and the net realizable value. These reserves are recorded based on estimates and included in cost of sales.


Property and Equipment


Property and equipment are stated at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, which range from one to seven years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the useful life or lease term including scheduled renewal terms. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. When assets are retired or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gains or losses are included in income in the year of disposition. The Company examines the possibility of decreases in the value of these assets when events or changes in circumstances reflect the fact that their recorded value may not be recoverable.


Goodwill and Intangible Assets


Goodwill represents the future economic benefit arising from other assets acquired that could not be individually identified and separately recognized. Any goodwill arising from the Company’s acquisition is attributable to the value of the potential expanded market opportunity with new customers. Intangible assets may have either an identifiable or indefinite useful life. Intangible assets with identifiable useful lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their economic or legal life, whichever is shorter. The Company’s amortizable intangible assets are being amortized over a useful life of 5 years.


Goodwill is not subject to amortization but is subject to impairment tests at least annually. The Company reviews the carrying amounts of goodwill by reporting unit at least annually, or when indicators of impairment are present, to determine if goodwill may be impaired. To test goodwill impairment, the Company first assesses qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of goodwill is less than its carrying value. The Company would not be required to quantitatively determine the fair value of goodwill unless it determines, based on the qualitative assessment there are indicators of impairment. Under the quantitative test of goodwill, the Company compares the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. If the carrying value exceeds the fair value, then the goodwill is impaired by the excess amount. The Company performs its annual testing for goodwill during the fourth quarter of each fiscal year or more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit.


Intangible assets determined to have finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives of 5 years. The useful life of an intangible asset is the period over which the asset is expected to contribute directly or indirectly to future cash flows. The Company periodically evaluates both finite and indefinite lived intangible assets for impairment upon occurrence of events or changes in circumstances that indicate the carrying amount of intangible assets may not be recoverable.


As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company performed its annual goodwill impairment test for its one reporting unit. The results of the Company’s annual impairment test indicated that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its carrying value. Therefore, no impairment of goodwill or intangibles assets was recorded as of December 31, 2023 or 2022.


Impairment of Long-Lived Assets


In accordance with ASC Topic 360, the Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable, or at least annually. The Company recognizes an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset’s estimated fair value and its book value.


Warranty Liability


The Company provides limited warranties on its products for product defects for periods ranging from 12 months to the life of the product. Warranty costs may include the cost of product replacement, refunds, labor costs and other costs. Allowances for estimated warranty costs are recorded during the period of sale. The determination of such allowances requires the Company to make estimates of product warranty claim rates and expected costs to repair or to replace the products under warranty. The Company currently establishes warranty reserves based on historical warranty costs for each product line combined with liability estimates based on the prior 12 months’ sales activities. If actual return rates and/or repair and replacement costs differ significantly from the Company’s estimates, adjustments to recognize additional cost of sales may be required in future periods. Historically the warranty accrual and the expense amounts have been immaterial. The warranty liability is included in accrued expenses on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and amounted to $1,000 and $26,648 on December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, warranty costs were de minimis.


Revenue Recognition


The Company follows ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). This standard establishes a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most of the existing revenue recognition guidance. ASC 606 requires an entity to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services and requires certain additional disclosures.


The Company sells its products which include standard warranties primarily to distributors and authorized dealers. Product sales are recognized at a point in time when the product is shipped to the customer and title is transferred and are recorded net of any discounts or allowances. The warranty does not represent a separate performance obligation.


Revenues from contracts for the distribution and installation of window film solutions are recognized over time on the basis of the Company’s estimates of the progress towards completion of contracts using various output or input methods depending on the type of contract terms including (1) the ratio of number of labor hours spent compared to the number of estimated labor hours to complete a job, (2) using the milestone method, or (3) using a units completed method. These methods are used because management considers these to be the best available measure of progress on these contracts. We use the same method for similar types of contracts. The asset, “contract assets” represents revenues recognized in excess of amounts billed. The liability, “contract liabilities,” represents billings in excess of revenues recognized.


Cost of Sales


Cost of sales includes inventory costs, packaging costs and warranty expenses.


Cost of revenues from fixed-price contracts for the distribution and installation of window film solutions include all direct material, sub-contractor, labor and certain other direct costs, as well as those indirect costs related to contract performance, such as indirect labor and fringe benefits. Provisions for estimated losses on uncompleted contracts are made in the period in which such losses are determined. Changes in job performance, job conditions and estimated profitability may result in revisions to cost and income, which are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined. Changes in estimated job profitability resulting from job performance, job conditions, claims, change orders, and settlements, are accounted for as changes in estimates in the current period.


Shipping and Handling Costs


Shipping and handling costs incurred for product shipped to customers are included in general and administrative expenses and amounted to $16,288 and $45,455 for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Shipping and handling costs charged to customers are included in sales.


Research and Development


Research and development costs incurred in the development of the Company’s products are expensed as incurred and includes costs such as labor, materials, and other allocated costs incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, research and development costs incurred in the development of the Company’s products were $0.


Advertising Costs


The Company may participate in various advertising programs. All costs related to advertising of the Company’s products are expensed in the period incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, advertising costs charged to operations were $31,743 and $69,737, respectively and are included in general and administrative expenses on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. These advertising expenses do not include cooperative advertising and sales incentives which shall been deducted from sales.


Federal and State Income Taxes


The Company accounts for income tax using the liability method prescribed by ASC 740, “Income Taxes”. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates that will be in effect in the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets if based on the weight of available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized as income or loss in the period that includes the enactment date.


The Company follows the accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes using the provisions of ASC 740 “Income Taxes”. Using that guidance, tax positions initially need to be recognized in the financial statements when it is more likely than not the position will be sustained upon examination by the tax authorities. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company had no uncertain tax positions that qualify for either recognition or disclosure in the financial statements. Tax years that remain subject to examination are the years ending on and after December 31, 2018. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain income tax positions in other expense. However, no such interest and penalties were recorded as of December 31, 2023 and 2022.


Stock-Based Compensation


Stock-based compensation is accounted for based on the requirements of ASC 718 – “Compensation –Stock Compensation”, which requires recognition in the financial statements of the cost of employee, director, and non-employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments over the period the employee, director, or non-employee is required to perform the services in exchange for the award (presumptively, the vesting period). The ASC also requires measurement of the cost of employee, director, and non-employee services received in exchange for an award based on the grant-date fair value of the award. The Company has elected to recognize forfeitures as they occur as permitted under the FASB’s Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-09 Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment.




The Company accounts for leases in accordance with ASC 842. The lease standard requires certain leases to be reported on the consolidated balance sheets as right-of-use assets and lease liabilities. The Company elected the practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance of this standard that retained the lease classification and initial direct costs for any leases that existed prior to adoption of the standard. The Company does not reassess whether any contracts entered into prior to adoption are leases or contain leases.


The Company categorizes leases with contractual terms longer than twelve months as either operating or finance. Finance leases are generally those leases that would allow the Company to substantially utilize or pay for the entire asset over its estimated life. Assets acquired under finance leases are recorded in property and equipment, net. All other leases are categorized as operating leases. The Company does not have any finance leases as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. The Company’s leases generally have terms that range from three to four years for property and equipment and five years for property. The Company elected the accounting policy to include both the lease and non-lease components of our agreements as a single component and account for them as a lease.


Lease liabilities are recognized at the present value of the fixed lease payments using a discount rate based on the Company’s current borrowing rate. Lease assets are recognized based on the initial present value of the fixed lease payments, reduced by landlord incentives, plus any direct costs from executing the leases. Leasehold improvements are capitalized at cost and amortized over the lesser of their expected useful life or the lease term.


When the Company has the option to extend the lease term, terminate the lease before the contractual expiration date, or purchase the leased asset, and it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise the option, the Company considers these options in determining the classification and measurement of the lease. Costs associated with operating lease assets are recognized on a straight-line basis within operating expenses over the term of the lease.


Loss Per Common Share


ASC 260 “Earnings Per Share”, requires dual presentation of basic and diluted earnings per common share (“EPS”) with a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic EPS computation to the numerator and denominator of the diluted EPS computation. Basic EPS excludes dilutive securities and non-vested forfeitable shares. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common shares were exercised or converted into common shares or resulted in the issuance of common shares that then shared in the earnings of the entity. Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss available to members by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares, common share equivalents and potentially dilutive securities outstanding during each period. Potentially dilutive common shares consist of stock options and non-vested forfeitable shares (using the treasury stock method) and shares issuable upon conversion of preferred shares and convertible notes payable (using the as-if converted method). These common share equivalents may be dilutive in the future.


The following table presents a reconciliation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share:


    Year Ended
December 31,
    2023     2022  
Net income (loss) per common share - basic:            
Net income (loss) attributable to common shareholders   $ 1,841,470     $ (5,178,055 )
Weighted average common shares outstanding – basic     490,113,378       308,121,062  
Net income (loss) per common share – basic   $ 0.00     $ (0.02 )
Net income (loss) per common share - diluted:                
Net income (loss) attributable to common shareholders - basic   $ 1,841,470     $ (5,178,055 )
Add: preferred stock dividends     54,195      
Add: interest of convertible debt     186,536      
Numerator for income (loss) per common share – diluted   $ 2,082,201     $ (5,178,055 )
Weighted average common shares outstanding – basic     490,113,378       308,121,062  
Add: dilutive shares related to:                
  Convertible debt     1,220,101,111      
  Series B preferred     376,239,688      
  Series C preferred     438,151,351      
Weighted average common shares outstanding – diluted     2,524,605,528       308,121,062  
Net income (loss) per common share – diluted   $ 0.00     $ (0.02 )


For the year ended December 31, 2022, all potentially dilutive common shares were excluded from the computation of diluted common shares outstanding as they would have an anti-dilutive impact on the Company’s net losses. For the year ended December 31, 2023, stock options and warrants were excluded from the computation of diluted common shares outstanding as they would have an anti-dilutive impact on the Company’s net income. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, common share equivalents and potentially dilutive securities consisted of the following:  


    December 31,  
    2023     2022  
Stock options     8,445,698       8,445,698  
Warrants     34,000,000       34,000,000  
Series B preferred stock     335,772,090       164,635,079  
Series C preferred stock     438,151,351       432,250,000  
Convertible debt     1,220,101,111       962,679,774  
Non-vested, forfeitable common shares    
      2,036,470,250       1,618,980,671  


Segment Reporting


From January 1, 2022 to May 8, 2023, the Company operated in two reportable business segments which consisted of (1) the manufacture and sale of a windshield strengthening water repellent solution as well as disinfection products, and the sale of multi-purpose glass strengthening primer and window film mounting solutions, including ballistic-resistant film systems and a forced entry system, and (2) the distribution and installation of window film solutions. The Company’s reportable segments were strategic business units that offered different products and were managed separately based on the fundamental differences in their operations and locations. On May 8, 2023, the Company sold its C-Bond nanoShield™ product line and the remaining segment (1) as described above was combined into segment (2) and is now being managed together (see Note 16).


Noncontrolling Interest


The Company accounts for noncontrolling interest in accordance with ASC Topic 810-10-45, which requires the Company to present noncontrolling interests as a separate component of total shareholders’ deficit on the consolidated balance sheets and the consolidated net loss attributable to its noncontrolling interest be clearly identified and presented on the face of the consolidated statements of operations.


Risk and Uncertainties


The Company operates in an industry that is subject to intense competition and changes in consumer and commercial demand. The Company’s operations are subject to significant risk and uncertainties including financial and operational risks including the potential risk of business failure.


The Company has experienced, and in the future expects to continue to experience, variability in sales and earnings. The factors expected to contribute to this variability include, among others, (i) the cyclical nature of the business, (ii) general economic conditions in the various local markets in which the Company competes, including a potential general downturn in the economy, and (iii) the volatility of prices in connection with the Company’s products and services. These factors, among others, make it difficult to project the Company’s operating results on a consistent basis.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40)—Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. The ASU simplifies accounting for convertible instruments by removing major separation models required under current U.S. GAAP. Consequently, more convertible debt instruments will be reported as a single liability instrument with no separate accounting for embedded conversion features. The ASU removes certain settlement conditions that are required for equity contracts to qualify for the derivative scope exception, which will permit more equity contracts to qualify for the exception. The ASU also simplifies the diluted net income per share calculation in certain areas. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of the standard on the consolidated financial statements.


In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which significantly changes how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets, including accounts receivable. ASU No. 2016-13 will replace today’s “incurred loss” approach with an “expected loss” model, under which companies will recognize allowances based on expected rather than incurred losses. On November 15, 2019, the FASB delayed the effective date of Topic 326 for certain small public companies and other private companies until fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 for SEC filers that are eligible to be smaller reporting companies under the SEC’s definition, as well as private companies and not-for-profit entities. In March 2022, the FASB issued ASU No. 2022-02, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Troubled Debt Restructurings and Vintage Disclosures. The guidance was issued as improvements to ASU No. 2016-13 described above. The vintage disclosure changes require an entity to disclose current-period gross write-offs by year of origination for financing receivables. The guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The adoption of ASU No. 2022-02 on January 1, 2023 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. 


Other accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption. The Company does not discuss recent pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an impact on or are unrelated to its financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.