Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Use of estimates
The preparation of unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates during the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 include estimates for allowance for doubtful accounts on accounts receivable, the estimates for obsolete inventory, the useful life of property and equipment, assumptions used in assessing impairment of long-term assets, the estimate of the fair value of the right of use asset and lease liability, the valuation of redeemable and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock, the fair value of derivative liabilities, the value of beneficial conversion features, and the fair value of non-cash equity transactions.
Fair value of financial instruments and fair value measurements
The Company analyzes all financial instruments with features of both liabilities and equity under the Financial Accounting Standard Board's (the "FASB") accounting standard for such instruments. Under this standard, financial assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Disclosures about the fair value of financial instruments are based on pertinent information available to the Company on June 30, 2020. Accordingly, the estimates presented in these consolidated financial statements are not necessarily indicative of the amounts that could be realized on disposition of the financial instruments. FASB ASC 820 specifies a hierarchy of valuation techniques based on whether the inputs to those valuation techniques are observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect market assumptions. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurement) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurement). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:
The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets for cash, accounts receivable, notes payable – related party, convertible note payable, accounts payable, accrued expenses, accrued compensation, and subscription payable approximate their fair market value based on the short-term maturity of these instruments.
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis at June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019 is as follows:
A roll forward of the level 3 valuation financial instruments is as follows:
ASC 825-10 "Financial Instruments", allows entities to voluntarily choose to measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value (fair value option). The fair value option may be elected on an instrument-by-instrument basis and is irrevocable, unless a new election date occurs. If the fair value option is elected for an instrument, unrealized gains and losses for that instrument should be reported in earnings at each subsequent reporting date. The Company did not elect to apply the fair value option to any outstanding instruments.
Cash and cash equivalents
For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers all highly liquid instruments with a maturity of three months or less at the purchase date and money market accounts to be cash equivalents.
The Company recognizes an allowance for losses on accounts receivable in an amount equal to the estimated probable losses net of recoveries. The allowance is based on an analysis of historical bad debt experience, current receivables aging, and expected future write-offs, as well as an assessment of specific identifiable customer accounts considered at risk or uncollectible. The expense associated with the allowance for doubtful accounts is recognized as general and administrative expense.
Inventory, consisting of raw materials and finished goods, are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value utilizing the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. A reserve is established when management determines that certain inventories may not be saleable. If inventory costs exceed expected net realizable value due to obsolescence or quantities in excess of expected demand, the Company will record reserves for the difference between the cost and the net realizable value. These reserves are recorded based on estimates and included in cost of sales.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, which range from three to ten years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the useful life or lease term including scheduled renewal terms. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. When assets are retired or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gains or losses are included in income in the year of disposition. The Company examines the possibility of decreases in the value of these assets when events or changes in circumstances reflect the fact that their recorded value may not be recoverable.
Impairment of long-lived assets
In accordance with ASC Topic 360, the Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable, or at least annually. The Company recognizes an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset's estimated fair value and its book value.
Derivative financial instruments
The Company has certain financial instruments that are embedded derivatives. The Company evaluates all its financial instruments to determine if those contracts or any potential embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be separately accounted for in accordance with ASC 815-10-05-4, Derivatives and Hedging and 815-40, Contracts in Entity's Own Equity. This accounting treatment requires that the carrying amount of any embedded derivatives be recorded at fair value at issuance and marked-to-market at each balance sheet date. In the event that the fair value is recorded as a liability, as is the case with the Company, the change in the fair value during the period is recorded as either other income or expense. Upon conversion, exercise or repayment, the respective derivative liability is marked to fair value at the conversion, repayment or exercise date and then the related fair value amount is reclassified to other income or expense as part of gain or loss on extinguishment.
In July 2017, FASB issued ASU No. 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260); Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480); Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): (Part I) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features. These amendments simplify the accounting for certain financial instruments with down-round features. The amendments require companies to disregard the down-round feature when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to its own stock, for purposes of determining liability or equity classification. The guidance was adopted as of January 1, 2019 and the Company elected to record the effect of this adoption, if any, retrospectively to outstanding financial instruments with a down round feature by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to the condensed consolidated balance sheet as of the beginning of 2019, the period which the amendment is effective. The adoption of ASU No. 2017-11 had no effect on the Company's financial position or results of operations and there was no cumulative effect adjustment.
In May 2014, FASB issued an update Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") ("ASU 2014-09") establishing Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606"). ASU 2014-09, as amended by subsequent ASUs on the topic, establishes a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most of the existing revenue recognition guidance. This standard, which is effective for interim and annual reporting periods in fiscal years that begin after December 15, 2017, requires an entity to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services and also requires certain additional disclosures. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective approach, which requires applying the new standard to all existing contracts not yet completed as of the effective date and recording a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption.
Based on an evaluation of the impact ASU 2014-09 will have on the Company's sources of revenue, the Company has concluded that ASU 2014-09 did not have a material impact on the process for, timing of, and presentation and disclosure of revenue recognition from customers and there was no cumulative effect adjustment.
The Company sells its products primarily to distributors and authorized dealers. Product sales are recognized when the product is shipped to the customer and title is transferred and are recorded net of any discounts or allowances.
Cost of sales
Cost of sales includes inventory costs, packaging costs and warranty expenses.
Shipping and handling costs
Shipping and handling costs incurred for product shipped to customers are included in general and administrative expenses and amounted to $14,498 and $19,233 for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Shipping and handling costs charged to customers are included in sales.
Research and development
Research and development costs incurred in the development of the Company's products are expensed as incurred and includes costs such as labor, materials, and other allocated costs incurred. For the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, research and development costs incurred in the development of the Company's products were $4,729 and $20,400, respectively, and are included in operating expenses on the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The Company provides limited warranties on its products for product defects for periods ranging from 12 months to the life of the product. Warranty costs may include the cost of product replacement, refunds, labor costs and other costs. Allowances for estimated warranty costs are recorded during the period of sale. The determination of such allowances requires the Company to make estimates of product warranty claim rates and expected costs to repair or to replace the products under warranty. The Company currently establishes warranty reserves based on historical warranty costs for each product line combined with liability estimates based on the prior 12 months' sales activities. If actual return rates and/or repair and replacement costs differ significantly from the Company's estimates, adjustments to recognize additional cost of sales may be required in future periods. Historically the warranty accrual and the expense amounts have been immaterial. The warranty liability is included in accrued expenses on the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets and amounted $26,833 and $26,933 at June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, warranty expense amounted to $0 and $4,650, respectively, and is included in cost of sales on the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations. For the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, a roll forward of warranty liability is as follows:
The Company participates in various advertising programs. All costs related to advertising of the Company's products are expensed in the period incurred. For the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, advertising costs charged to operations were $19,789 and $25,738, respectively and are included in general and administrative expenses on the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations. These advertising expenses do not include cooperative advertising and sales incentives which have been deducted from sales.
Federal and state income taxes
The Company accounts for income tax using the liability method prescribed by ASC 740, "Income Taxes". Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates that will be in effect in the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets if based on the weight of available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized as income or loss in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company follows the accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes using the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 740 "Income Taxes". Using that guidance, tax positions initially need to be recognized in the financial statements when it is more likely than not the position will be sustained upon examination by the tax authorities. As of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the Company had no uncertain tax positions that qualify for either recognition or disclosure in the financial statements. Tax years that remain subject to examination are the years ending on and after December 31, 2015. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain income tax positions in other expense. However, no such interest and penalties were recorded as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
Stock-based compensation is accounted for based on the requirements of ASC 718 – "Compensation –Stock Compensation", which requires recognition in the financial statements of the cost of employee, director, and non-employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments over the period the employee, director , or non-employee is required to perform the services in exchange for the award (presumptively, the vesting period). The ASC also requires measurement of the cost of employee, director, and non-employee services received in exchange for an award based on the grant-date fair value of the award. The Company has elected to recognize forfeitures as they occur as permitted under ASU 2016-09 Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment.
Loss per common share
ASC 260 "Earnings Per Share", requires dual presentation of basic and diluted earnings per common share ("EPS") with a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic EPS computation to the numerator and denominator of the diluted EPS computation. Basic EPS excludes dilutive securities and non-vested forfeitable shares. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common shares were exercised or converted into common shares or resulted in the issuance of common shares that then shared in the earnings of the entity. Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss available to members by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares, common share equivalents and potentially dilutive securities outstanding during each period. Potentially dilutive common shares consist of stock options and non-vested forfeitable shares (using the treasury stock method) and shares issuable upon conversion of convertible notes payable (using the as-if converted method). These common share equivalents may be dilutive in the future. All potentially dilutive common shares were excluded from the computation of diluted common shares outstanding as they would have an anti-dilutive impact on the Company's net losses and consisted of the following:
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)". ASU 2016-02 sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e., lessees and lessors). The new standard requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. A lessee is also required to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than 12 months regardless of their classification. Leases with a term of 12 months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases today. The new standard requires lessors to account for leases using an approach that is substantially equivalent to existing guidance for sales-type leases, direct financing leases and operating leases. The pronouncement requires a modified retrospective method of adoption and is effective on January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. For the Company's administrative office lease, the Company analyzed if it would be required to record a lease liability and a right of use asset on its consolidated balance sheets at fair value upon adoption of ASU 2016-02. The Company has elected not to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for short-term leases that have a term of 12 months or less.
Operating lease ROU assets represents the right to use the leased asset for the lease term and operating lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. As most leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company use an incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the adoption date in determining the present value of future payments. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is amortized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and is included in general and administrative expenses in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.
During the six months ended June30, 2020 and 2019, the Company operated in one business segment.
The Company's results of operations could be adversely affected by general conditions in the global economy and in the global financial markets, including conditions that are outside of its control, including the impact of health and safety concerns, such as those relating to the current COVID-19 outbreak. The most recent global financial crisis caused extreme volatility and disruptions in the capital and credit markets. A severe or prolonged economic downturn could result in a variety of risks to our business, including weakened demand for the company's products and its ability to raise additional capital when needed on acceptable terms, if at all. A weak or declining economy could strain the Company's domestic and international customers, possibly resulting in delays in customer payments. Any of the foregoing could harm the Company's business and it cannot anticipate all the ways in which the current economic climate and financial market conditions could adversely impact the Company's business.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which modifies certain disclosure requirements related to fair value measurements including (i) requiring disclosures on changes in unrealized gains and losses in other comprehensive income for recurring Level 3 fair value measurements; and (ii) a requirement to disclose the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements. ASU 2018-13 was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those years. The adoption of this standard on January 1, 2020 did not have a material impact on our fair value measurement disclosures.
In December 2019, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2019-12 – Income Taxes (Topic 740) Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, as part of its initiative to reduce complexity in the accounting standards. The amendments in ASU 2019-12 eliminate certain exceptions related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. ASU 2019-12 also clarifies and simplifies other aspects of the accounting for income taxes. The amendments in ASU 2019-12 will become effective for us as of the beginning of our 2022 fiscal year. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. We are currently evaluating the impact that this guidance will have upon our financial position and results of operations, if any.
Other accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption. The Company does not discuss recent pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an impact on or are unrelated to its financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef