Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Use of estimates
The preparation of unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates during the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 include estimates for allowance for doubtful accounts on accounts receivable, the estimates for obsolete inventory, the useful life of property and equipment, assumptions used in assessing impairment of long-term assets, the fair value of beneficial conversion features, and the fair value of non-cash equity transactions.
Fair value of financial instruments and fair value measurements
The Company analyzes all financial instruments with features of both liabilities and equity under the Financial Accounting Standard Board’s (the “FASB”) accounting standard for such instruments. Under this standard, financial assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company did not identify any assets or liabilities that are required to be presented on the balance sheet at fair value in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820. ASC 825-10 “Financial Instruments”, allows entities to voluntarily choose to measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value (fair value option). The fair value option may be elected on an instrument-by-instrument basis and is irrevocable, unless a new election date occurs. If the fair value option is elected for an instrument, unrealized gains and losses for that instrument should be reported in earnings at each subsequent reporting date. The Company did not elect to apply the fair value option to any outstanding instruments.
The carrying amounts reported in the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets for cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and accrued compensation approximate their fair market value based on the short-term maturity of these instruments.
Cash and cash equivalents
For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers all highly liquid instruments with a maturity of three months or less at the purchase date and money market accounts to be cash equivalents.
The Company recognizes an allowance for losses on accounts receivable in an amount equal to the estimated probable losses net of recoveries. The allowance is based on an analysis of historical bad debt experience, current receivables aging, and expected future write-offs, as well as an assessment of specific identifiable customer accounts considered at risk or uncollectible. The expense associated with the allowance for doubtful accounts is recognized as general and administrative expense.
Inventory, consisting of raw materials and finished goods, are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value utilizing the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. A reserve is established when management determines that certain inventories may not be saleable. If inventory costs exceed expected net realizable value due to obsolescence or quantities in excess of expected demand, the Company will record reserves for the difference between the cost and the net realizable value. These reserves are recorded based on estimates and included in cost of sales.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost and are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, which range from three to ten years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the useful life or lease term including scheduled renewal terms. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. When assets are retired or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gains or losses are included in income in the year of disposition. The Company examines the possibility of decreases in the value of these assets when events or changes in circumstances reflect the fact that their recorded value may not be recoverable.
Impairment of long-lived assets
In accordance with ASC Topic 360, the Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable, or at least annually. The Company recognizes an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset’s estimated fair value and its book value.
In May 2014, FASB issued an update Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) (“ASU 2014-09”) establishing Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). ASU 2014-09, as amended by subsequent ASUs on the topic, establishes a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most of the existing revenue recognition guidance. This standard, which is effective for interim and annual reporting periods in fiscal years that begin after December 15, 2017, requires an entity to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services and also requires certain additional disclosures. The Company adopted this standard in 2018 using the modified retrospective approach, which requires applying the new standard to all existing contracts not yet completed as of the effective date and recording a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. Based on an evaluation of the impact ASU 2014-09 will have on the Company’s sources of revenue, the Company has concluded that ASU 2014-09 did not have a material impact on the process for, timing of, and presentation and disclosure of revenue recognition from customers and there was no cumulative effect adjustment.
The Company sells its products primarily to distributors and authorized dealers. Product sales are recognized when the product is shipped to the customer and title is transferred and are recorded net of any discounts or allowances.
Cost of sales
Cost of sales includes inventory costs, packaging costs and warranty expenses.
Shipping and handling costs
Shipping and handling costs incurred for product shipped to customers are included in general and administrative expenses and amounted to $12,197 and $16,979 for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Shipping and handling costs charged to customers are included in sales.
The Company provides limited warranties on its products for product defects for periods ranging from 12 months to the life of the product. Warranty costs may include the cost of product replacement, refunds, labor costs and other costs. Allowances for estimated warranty costs are recorded during the period of sale. The determination of such allowances requires the Company to make estimates of product warranty claim rates and expected costs to repair or to replace the products under warranty. The Company currently establishes warranty reserves based on historical warranty costs for each product line combined with liability estimates based on the prior 12 months’ sales activities. If actual return rates and/or repair and replacement costs differ significantly from the Company’s estimates, adjustments to recognize additional cost of sales may be required in future periods. Historically the warranty accrual and the expense amounts have been immaterial. The warranty liability is included in accrued expenses on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and amounted $21,366 and $21,935 at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, warranty expense amounted to $4,478 and $6,112, respectively, and is included in cost of sales on the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Research and development
Research and development costs incurred in the development of the Company’s products are expensed as incurred and includes costs such as labor, materials, and other allocated costs incurred. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, research and development costs incurred in the development of the Company’s products were $148,981 and $122,347, respectively, and are included in operating expenses on the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The Company participates in various advertising programs. All costs related to advertising of the Company’s products are expensed in the period incurred. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, advertising costs charged to operations were $10,082 and $37,107, respectively and are included in sales and marketing on the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations. These advertising expenses do not include cooperative advertising and sales incentives which have been deducted from sales.
Federal and state income taxes
Through April 25, 2018, the Company’s subsidiaries operated as a limited liability company and passed all income and loss to each member based on their proportionate interest in the Company. Effective April 26, 2018, the Company accounts for income tax using the liability method prescribed by ASC 740, “Income Taxes”. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates that will be in effect in the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets if based on the weight of available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized as income or loss in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company follows the accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes using the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 740 “Income Taxes “. Using that guidance, tax positions initially need to be recognized in the financial statements when it is more likely than not the position will be sustained upon examination by the tax authorities. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company had no uncertain tax positions that qualify for either recognition or disclosure in the financial statements. Tax years that remain subject to examination are the years ending on and after December 31, 2013. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain income tax positions in other expense. However, no such interest and penalties were recorded as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
Stock-based compensation is accounted for based on the requirements of ASC 718 – “Compensation–Stock Compensation”, which requires recognition in the financial statements of the cost of employee and director services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments over the period the employee or director is required to perform the services in exchange for the award (presumptively, the vesting period). The ASC also requires measurement of the cost of employee and director services received in exchange for an award based on the grant-date fair value of the award. The Company utilizes the Black-Sholes option pricing model and uses the simplified method to determine expected term because of lack of sufficient exercise history. Additionally, effective January 1, 2017, the Company adopted the Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-09 (“ASU 2016-09”), Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. ASU 2016-09 permits the election of an accounting policy for forfeitures of share-based payment awards, either to recognize forfeitures as they occur or estimate forfeitures over the vesting period of the award. The Company has elected to recognize forfeitures as they occur and the cumulative impact of this change did not have any effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Pursuant to ASC 505-50 – “Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees”, all share-based payments to non-employees, including grants of stock options, are recognized in the consolidated financial statements as compensation expense over the service period of the consulting arrangement or until performance conditions are expected to be met. Using a Black-Scholes valuation model, the Company periodically reassessed the fair value of non-employee options until service conditions are met, which generally aligns with the vesting period of the options, and the Company adjusted the expense recognized in the consolidated financial statements accordingly.
Upon exercise of the stock options by the holder using the exercise methods delineated in the option contract, the Company issues new shares from its unissued authorized shares.
Loss per common share
ASC 260 “Earnings Per Share”, requires dual presentation of basic and diluted earnings per common share (“EPS”) with a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic EPS computation to the numerator and denominator of the diluted EPS computation. Basic EPS excludes dilution. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common shares were exercised or converted into common shares or resulted in the issuance of common shares that then shared in the earnings of the entity. Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss available to members by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares, common share equivalents and potentially dilutive securities outstanding during each period. Potentially dilutive common shares consist of stock options (using the treasury stock method) and shares issuable upon conversion of convertible notes payable (using the as-if converted method). These common share equivalents may be dilutive in the future.
All potentially dilutive common shares were excluded from the computation of diluted common shares outstanding as they would have an anti-dilutive impact on the Company’s net losses and consisted of the following:
During the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company operated in one business segment.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842) “. ASU 2016-02 sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e., lessees and lessors). The new standard requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. A lessee is also required to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than 12 months regardless of their classification. Leases with a term of 12 months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases today. The new standard requires lessors to account for leases using an approach that is substantially equivalent to existing guidance for sales-type leases, direct financing leases and operating leases. The pronouncement requires a modified retrospective method of adoption and is effective on January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company will continue to evaluate the effect the adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have on the consolidated financial statements of the Company.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07 which simplifies the accounting for share-based payments granted to non-employees for services by aligning it with the accounting for share-based payments to employees, with certain exceptions. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of this accounting guidance to have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
There are no other recently issued accounting standards that apply to us or that are expected to have a material impact on our results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef